Reading Comprehension Practice Set 16

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Reading Comprehension Practice Set 16

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Passage 

The rapid and unprecedented changes in the external environment such as liberalization of the economy, globalization of international markets, deregulation of the financial system and implications of various clauses under WTO exerted considerable pressure on the agricultural system. The inadequate levels of capital formation in the agricultural sector, distancing of farm technologies from requirements of the market, inadequate and untimely supply of credit and post-harvest losses are the worrying factors. Agricultural sector employs about 64% of the workforce, contributes 27.4% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for about 18% share of the value of the country‘s exports. It supplies bulk of wage goods required by non-agricultural sector and raw material for a large section of the industry. In terms of gross fertilizer consumption, India ranks 4th in the world after USA, Russia and China. The country has the largest area in the world under pulse crops while in the field of cotton, India is the first to evolve a cotton hybrid. In 1996-97, the per capital net availability of foodgrains touched 528.77gms, which was a mere 395gms ate the time of India‘s independence. Therefore, it has a vital place in the economic development of the country. Significant strides have been made in agricultural production towards ensuring food security. There has been a significant improvement in agricultural productivity which has helped in reducing rural poverty. The trend in the growth of foodgrain production, particularly in high productivity areas like Haryana and Punjab, is on the decline. Agricultural productivity in the Eastern region, excepting West Bengal, is low, and it is mainly attributed to weak infrastructure. Indian agriculture is also on the threshold of becoming globally competitive and is in a position to make major gains in the export market. Foodgrains account for 63% of country‘s agricultural output and hence even a marginal production has ‗ripple effect‘ on the rest of the economy. IN 1997, the foodgrains output was 199 million tones but in 1998 it was lowered by over 4 million tones owing to a fall in the pulse production. Initiatives for increasing the production and productivity of cereal crops on the basis of cropping systems approach continued during the year 1996-97. In 1997-98, 31.2 million tones of coarse cereals was produced. However, barring the record production of 69.3 million tonnes of wheat in 1996-97, the production of wheat at 66.5 million tonnes in 1997-98 and expected rice production at 83.5 million tones is said to be the highest ever. Procurement of wheat during the rabi marketing season 1998-99 touched a record high of 10.61 million tonnes. Pulses production in the country has been stagnating around 8-14 million tonnes for the last 40 years. The production of pulses is expected to be about 13 million tonnes in 1997-98 compared to 13.19 million tonnes during 1995-96. The adverse agro-climatic conditions have had their impact on the production of commercial crops. The production of 9 major oilseeds in 1997-98 is expected to be 24 million tonnes, as compared to 25 million tonnes in 1996-97 and 22.4 million tonnes in ‘95-96. Among the nine oilseed crops grown in the country, groundnut and rapsed/mustard together account for 62% of the total oilseeds production. The production of groundnut and rapeseed and mustard is expected to touch 8 million and 6 million tonnes compared to 9 million and 7 million tonnes in 1996-97.

Questions based on Passage

1. The author has mentioned the following factors that influenced the agricultural system EXCEPT

(a) Bringing international markets together

(b) Freeing various economic activities from restrictions

(c) Automation in agro and industrial sectors

(d) Deregulation of financial system

(e) None of these

2. Which of the following is TRUE about China?

(a) It has the largest area under pulse crop

(b) It exceeds India‘s gross fertilizer consumption.

(c) It is just a rank below in gross fertilizer consumption.

(d) It is just a rank after India to evolve a cotton hybrid

(e) None of these

3. Decline in production of commercial crops is mainly due to

(a) want of timely procurement of foodgrains

(b) inadequate fertilizer feeding

(c) reduction in production of oilseed crops

(d) decline in rabi crops as compared to oilseeds

(e) None of these

4. According to the passage, how is agro sector helpful to other industries?

(a) It utilizes 64% of the workforce.

(b) It contributes to more than one-fourth of the GDP.

(c) It contributes to about 18% of the value of the country‘s exports.

(d) It provides raw material to various industries.

(e) None of these

5. What is the author‘s assessment about Indian agriculture in terms of the world scenario?

(a) It is not gaining the desirable impact.

(b) It is likely to show only a marginal increase in production

(c) It will fetch reasonable gain by way of exports.

(d) It is on the fourth position in global competition.

(e) None of these

6. The sharp decline in foodgrain production in 1998 over its preceding year is attributed to

(a) increasing productivity of cereal crops

(b) cropping system approach

(c) sub-standard production of cereals

(d) decrease in the pulse production

(e) None of these

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7. What is the impact of increase in food and other agro-production, according to the passage?

(a) Total elimination of rural poverty in the entire country

(b) Haryana and Punjab have shown a decline in food production.

(c) West Bengal has improved in foodgrains production.

(d) Infrastructural facilities have improved.

(e) None of these

8. What, according to the passage, is the ‗RIPPLE EFFECT‘?

(a) Increase in foodgrains leads to over consumption and in effect generates pressure on economy

(b) Substantial influence on certain things; slight decrease or increase in certain other things

(c) Decrease in production of one commodity because of decrease in production of some other commodity

(d) Increase in production of one commodity due to decrease in production of some other commodity.

(e) None of these

9. Which of the following is FALSE in the context of this passage?

(a) Farm technologies are not in contrast with market requirements.

(b) Capital formation in agricultural sector is less than required.

(c) The supply of credit to agro-sector is less and ill-timed

(d) Mechanism of compensation for crop losses is not adequate

(e) None of these Directions

(Q.10-12): Choose the word or group of words which is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold.

10. STRIDES

(a) Achievements

(b) Setbacks

(c) Effects

(d) Aspirations

(e) Developments

11. EVOLVE

(a) Visualise

(b) Nurture

(c) Discover

(d) Develop

(e) Migrate

12. CONSIDERABLE

(a) Marginal

(b) Significant

(c) Desirable

(d) Negligible

(e) Excessive Directions (Q.13-15): Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold.

13. MARGINAL

(a) Trivial

(b) Crucial

(c) Influential

(d) Forceful

(e) Negligible

14. ADVERSE

(a) Reverse

(b) Confronting

(c) Favourable

(d) Gainful

(e) Exceptional

15. RAPID

(a) Fast

(b) Retarded

(c) Extreme

(d) Intangible

(e) Gradua

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Answer Key

1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (e) 4. (d) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (e) 8. (d) 9. (a) 10. (a) 11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (e)

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Download Study Material for Bank Exam – Click Here

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