Reading Comprehension Practice for SBI PO Set 40

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Reading Comprehension Practice for SBI PO Set 40

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Passage 

It is difficult to compare countries because various factors such as size, culture, history, geography, natural endowments, geopolitics and internal polity come into play. There are some goals which can be achieved by smaller countries; but sometimes smaller countries find it difficult to embark upon certain big technological plans even if they have the funds, because the size of the domestic market is too small. If we consider the bigger countries, the closest comparison to India is China, though there are many crucial differences. The Chinese vision is to prepare the country for entry into the ranks of mid-level developed nations by the middle of the twenty-first century. Acceleration of the nation’s economic growth and social development by relying on advances in science and technology is pivotal in this. Documents describing the Chinese
vision state that science and technology
constitute premier productive forces and represent a great revolutionary power that can propel economic and social development. It is interesting to note that the main lessons the Chinese have drawn from their past performance is their failure to promote science and technology as strategic tools for empowerment, they also point to the absence of mechanisms and motivations in their economic activity to promote dependence on science and technology. Similarly, they hold that their scientific and technological efforts were not oriented towards economic growth. As a consequence, they conclude, a large number of scientific and technological achievements were not converted into productive forces as they were too far removed from China’s immediate economic and social needs. The Chinese vision is therefore aimed at exploiting state-of-arts science and technology to enhance the nation’s overall
power and strength, to improve the people’s living standard, to focus on resolving problems encountered in large – scale industrial and agricultural production and to effectively control and alleviate pressures brought on by population, resources and the environment. By the year 2000, China had aimed at bringing the main industrial sectors up to the technological levels achieved by the developed countries in the 1970s or 80s and by 2020 to the level they would have attained by the early twenty first century. The aim is to bridge the overall gap with the advanced world. There is a special emphasis on research and development of high technologies that would find defence applications. Some of these technologies are critical for improving the feature of key conventional weapons. Some technologies are meant for enhancing future military capabilities. Other factors are aimed at maintaining the momentum to develop capabilities for cutting edge defence technologies. They call for unremitting efforts in this regard with the aim of maintaining effective self-defence and nuclear deterrent capabilities and to enable parity in defence, science and technology with the advanced world.

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Questions based on Passage

1. Comparison between two countries becomes difficult because

(A) The countries differ in their internal political systems

(B) Each country has its own culture and natural resources which differ from those of others

(C) The countries with homogenous backgrounds are many in numbers.

(a) A only

(b) B only

(c) A and B only

(d) All A, B & C

(e) None of these

2. Why can’t smaller countries take up big technological planning?

(a) They have other goals to achieve

(b) They have smaller domestic market size

(c) Smaller countries lack technological Know how

(d) Bigger countries do not permit them to do so

(e) None of these

3. What is the goal of China to be accomplished by the middle of 21st century?

(a) To become one of the most developed nations

(b) To surpass the level of all middle-level developed nations by a good margin

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(c) To be the most influential superpower

(d) To be the most developed nation

(e) None of these

4. What according to the Chinese vision can boost socioeconomic development?

(a) Science and technology

(b) Minds united with revolutionary powers

(c) Premier Productive forces

(d) A vision which propels development

(e) None of these

5. Which of the following have the Chinese identified as their pitfall(s) from their past?

(A) Lack of orientation of science and technology towards economic growth

(B) Lack of mechanisms in their economic activities to promote use of science and technology

(C) Neglect of science and technology as a strategic measures for employment

(a) A & B only

(b) B & C only

(c) A & C only

(d)All A, B & C

(e) None of these

6. The scientific and technological accomplishments of china could

(a) remains dysfunctional (b) be transformed into productive forces

(c) be utilized for motivating economic activities

(d) be promoted through political will

(e) None of these

7. Which of the following is/are the expected result/s of China’s new vision?

(A) To augment people’s standard of living

(B) To tackle effectively pressure brought on by the population

(C) To utilize modern technology for bringing the latent power under control

(a) A & B only

(b) B & C only

(c) A & C only

(d) A, B & C

(e) None of these

8. What according to the passage is the gap in terms of number of years between the targeted developments in China and in other developed countries?

(a) 5-10 years

(b) 20-30 years

(c) 40-50 years

(d) More than 50 years

(e) Less than 5 years

9. Which of the following is the essence of the contents of the passage?

(a) Enormous population of the country can be positively utilized for developments

(b) Scientific and technological principles may not necessarily be instrumental in economic growth

(c) Harmonious development of a country can take place even in the absence of technology up gradation

(d) Economic growth needs to be driven by science and technology

(e) Countries should not be compared with each other

Directions (Q. No. 10 -12): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as used in the passage.

10. ENDOWMENTS

(a) Powers

(b) Measures

(c) Habitats

(d) Findings

(e) Gifts

11. ORIENTED

(a) Stated

(b) Tempting

(c) Deciding

(d) Leaning

(e) Leading

12. CONVENTIONAL

(a) Functional

(b) Activist

(c) Deliberate

(d) Adventurous

(e) Traditional Directions

(Q. No. 13-15): Choose the word which is OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage.

13. CRUCIAL

(a) Central

(b) Trivial

(c) Decisive

(d) Fundamental

(e) Imperative

14. PIVOTAL

(a) Irrelevant

(b) Unmanageable

(c) Irreparable

(d) Inauspicious

(e) Irritating

15. PARITY

(a) Impropriety

(b) Import

(c) Inequality

(d) Similarity

(e) Homogeneity

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Answer Key

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (e) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (c) 11. (e) 12. (d) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (e)

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